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  • APT Staff

Get Moving Again: The Benefits of Stretching and Strengthening in Physical Therapy 

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Physical therapy is a healthcare field focused on improving mobility and physical function. Therapists use techniques like stretching, strengthening exercises, hands-on therapy, and more to help patients recover from injury, manage chronic conditions, or improve overall wellness. 


This article will focus specifically on the benefits of incorporating stretching and strengthening exercises into a physical therapy program. These two components are often core parts of physical therapy treatment plans. 


The goal of this article is to provide an overview of why stretching and strengthening are so important in physical therapy. It will explore the key benefits these exercises offer patients across a variety of contexts. Understanding these advantages can help patients better appreciate the value of fully engaging in prescribed stretches and strength training as part of their therapy. 


a man in mid stride running

Improved Range of Motion 


Regular stretching is one of the best ways to improve range of motion. As we stretch muscles and joints, it lengthens the muscles and increases elasticity. This allows for greater freedom of movement and range of motion around the joints. 


Having good range of motion comes with many benefits: 


  • Allows you to more easily perform daily activities like getting dressed, reaching up high, or bending down low without discomfort or restriction. 

  • Enables fuller movement and function of the joints during exercise or sports. Greater range of motion translates into better performance.  

  • Reduces risk of strains or tears to muscles and tendons since the tissues are more flexible. 

  • Decreases chance of compensation injuries. Limited range of motion in one joint can lead to overuse and strain in surrounding joints as they try to compensate. 

  • Prevents joint stiffness and loss of mobility as we age. Regular stretching keeps the joints supple and healthy. 

  • Provides relief for joint pain by taking pressure off restricted, tight joints. The joints can move more freely without pinching or compression. 


Working to improve range of motion is an essential goal in physical therapy treatment plans. Specific stretching exercises assigned by a physical therapist can help patients regain mobility and reap the many benefits of having full, pain-free joint movement. 


a soccer player that fell down

Injury Prevention 


Stretching and strengthening exercises are critical for injury prevention in physical therapy. They help improve muscle balance, joint stability, and range of motion. 


How Stretching Prevents Injuries 


Stretching makes muscles more flexible and pliable. Tight, inflexible muscles are more prone to strains and tears. Stretching increases muscle elasticity, allowing them to lengthen further without damage. This reduces strain on joints, tendons, and ligaments as well. 


For example, tight hip flexor muscles can put extra stress on the knees and cause patellofemoral pain syndrome. Stretching the hip flexors gently lengthens the muscle fibers, restoring normal biomechanics and taking pressure off the knees. 


Stretching also improves range of motion around joints. Full range of motion allows joints to move smoothly through their natural arcs without impinging other structures. Limited mobility forces joints to move outside their normal patterns, increasing injury risk. 


How Strengthening Prevents Injuries 


Strengthening muscles improves their ability to stabilize joints. Weak muscles fatigue easier and cannot protect joints from abnormal movements. 


Strong muscles also better absorb shock and eccentric loads placed on joints. For example, stronger quadriceps better handle the compressive forces placed on the knees during activities like running and jumping. 


Strengthening exercises improve muscle balances across joints as well. Balanced strength decreases risk of overuse injuries. For example, gluteal strengthening provides stability for the hips and knees by balancing the hip flexors. 


Targeted strengthening also helps support vulnerable joints. Exercises for rotator cuff muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. Core strengthening lends stability to the lumbar spine. 


Overall, strengthening muscles through a full range of motion gives joints the durability they need to withstand physical activity and prevent acute and overuse injuries. 


two women doing yoga

Improved Posture 


Good posture is important for overall health and wellbeing. Regular stretching can help improve posture by opening up tight muscles, especially muscles like the chest, shoulders and hips that can become shortened from prolonged periods of sitting. Strengthening exercises that target the core and back muscles also help improve posture. 


Having good upright posture provides many benefits including: 


  • Reduced back and neck pain - Good posture takes pressure off the spine and reduces strain. Slouching or hunching over can put extra stress on the neck, shoulders and lower back leading to pain.    

  • Improved breathing - When you have good upright posture, you allow your lungs to fully expand and take deep full breaths. Poor posture can restrict breathing.    

  • Increased energy - Good posture helps avoid fatigue. Slouching collapses the chest restricts breathing and reduces oxygen flow which causes low energy.    

  • Improved concentration - Upright posture allows you to take deeper breaths which increases blood flow and oxygen to the brain helping concentration.    

  • Confidence - Having good upright posture portrays confidence to others. Slouching gives off the impression of being insecure or lazy.     

  • Prevent injury - Good posture aligns the joints properly and prevents injury from improper joint movement.    

  • Reduced digestive issues - Upright posture allows for proper functioning of the digestive system. Slouching can compress the abdominal cavity leading to issues like acid reflux. 


Regular stretching and strengthening as part of a physical therapy routine can help improve posture and provide multiple benefits. Maintaining good upright posture should be a priority for overall health. 


a sign that says 'pain relief'

Reduced Pain 


Regular stretching and strengthening exercises can help reduce muscle and joint pain associated with various conditions and injuries. Tight muscles are a common source of discomfort. Stretching helps lengthen muscles and improve flexibility. This releases muscle tension, pressure on joints, and reduces associated aches and pains. 


Strengthening muscles through resistance training also helps reduce pain. Strong muscles better support joints and prevent overcompensation by other muscles. Weak muscles can lead to poor movement patterns, muscle imbalances, and increased stress on joints. Strengthening exercises build muscle strength to take pressure off joints and realign the body for pain-free movement. 


Common conditions that benefit from stretching and strengthening for pain relief include: 


  • Arthritis - Building muscle strength reduces stress on joints affected by arthritis and loosening tight muscles eases associated pains.    

  • Lower back pain - Strengthening core muscles provides better lumbar support while stretching tight hamstrings relieves pressure on the lower back.    

  • Neck and shoulder pain - Stretching chest muscles and strengthening upper back muscles realigns the shoulders and neck to reduce pain and discomfort.    

  • Knee pain - Quadriceps, hamstring, and calf stretches paired with strengthening exercises improve knee stability and function to ease knee pains.    

  • Plantar fasciitis - Calf stretches and intrinsic foot muscle strengthening helps support the arch and reduce inflammation related pain. 


Under the guidance of a physical therapist, an individualized stretching and strengthening program can effectively relieve muscle and joint pains for improved comfort, mobility and function. 


a man lifting two kettlebells

Increased Strength 

Building muscle strength is a key benefit of a physical therapy strengthening program. As muscles get stronger, they are better able to generate more force and resist fatigue during daily activities and exercise. 


There are many advantages to increased muscular strength through physical therapy: 


  • Improved ability to perform functional tasks like walking up stairs, rising from a chair, carrying groceries, etc. Stronger muscles mean these activities require less effort.    

  • Reduced risk of injury. Stronger muscles help stabilize joints and provide shock absorption, decreasing stress on joints and tissues.    

  • Increased bone density. The pull of strengthened muscles during resistance exercises can stimulate bone growth, improving bone health.     

  • Enhanced metabolic rate. Building muscle mass increases resting metabolism, helping to burn more calories.    

  • Greater endurance. Stronger muscles withstand fatigue better and allow one to be active for longer periods.    

  • Confidence. There is often a psychological boost from seeing/feeling improvements in physical abilities.    

  • Overall fitness. Increased strength lays a foundation for pursuing other fitness goals like cardiovascular health. 


A customized strengthening program helps identify and target weak muscles, gradually increasing resistance to rebuild muscle tissue and reinstate strength. With professional guidance, strengthening through physical therapy helps patients regain strength in targeted areas for enhanced function, health and wellbeing. 


a female dancer in mid pose

Improved Balance 


Research shows that consistent stretching and strengthening exercises improve balance and stability. This is because stretching increases flexibility and range of motion while strengthening builds coordination between muscles that support proper alignment.  


Balance is important for people of all ages, but especially as we get older. Good balance helps prevent falls, which are a major cause of injury for the elderly. It also gives us more confidence to stay active and independent in our daily lives. 


Specific stretching and strengthening exercises that target the hips, knees, ankles, back, and core lead to marked improvements in balance within just 4-8 weeks of starting a program. This happens by re-training the communication between the brain and the small stabilizer muscles that subtly move our limbs hundreds of times each day. 


In one study, senior citizens who stretched and strengthened 3 times a week for 2 months decreased their risk of falling by over 40%. They reported feeling steadier on their feet and less worried about losing their balance while walking or standing. The improved stability and posture gained from regular stretching and strengthening provides a solid foundation for safely performing activities we often take for granted. 


a dancer on a pole

Increased Flexibility 


Stretching exercises are effective at improving flexibility, which is the range of motion around a joint. As we age, muscles naturally become shorter and tighter, reducing flexibility. This makes it more difficult to complete everyday tasks that require reaching, bending, or twisting. 


Dedicated stretching helps lengthen tissues around joints, allowing for greater range of motion. This brings numerous advantages: 


  • Improved mobility to more easily complete daily activities like getting dressed, tying shoes, looking over your shoulder when driving, etc. Stretching makes basic movements easier.    

  • Reduced risk of strains or tears. Tight muscles are more prone to injury when suddenly forced to extend. Loose, flexible muscles can handle quick motions better.    

  • Enhanced performance in sports and exercise. Flexibility allows for a greater range of motion to execute skills in activities like yoga, dance, martial arts, and more.    

  • - Decreased post-workout soreness. Stretching helps flush lactic acid from muscle tissues. 

  • Better posture and spinal health. Flexible muscles reduce pressure on joints and allow you to sit and stand with proper alignment.    

  • Stress relief. Stretching increases blood flow and provides a soothing feeling. 


Regularly performing targeted stretches provides long-term gains in joint mobility and tissue elasticity. Following a stretching program designed by a physical therapist can help you make specific improvements important to your health and daily life. 


a bunch of legs running

Improved Performance 


Increasing range of motion, strength, balance, and flexibility through stretching and strengthening exercises can significantly improve physical performance in sports, exercise, and everyday activities. 


Greater range of motion allows for more powerful and efficient movement. For example, a baseball pitcher with good shoulder mobility can achieve higher pitching velocities and reduce strain on their arm. Flexibility in the hips, hamstrings, and calves enables longer strides and quicker changes of direction in runners. 


Building muscle strength through resistance training gives athletes more power and endurance. Stronger muscles stabilize joints, reducing injury risk. Weightlifters can lift heavier loads, sprinters can accelerate faster, and swimmers have more efficient strokes with improved strength. 


Exercises to improve balance help athletic performance by enhancing body control, coordination, and agility. Good balance enables figure skaters to nail spins, gymnasts to stick landings, and basketball players to drive past defenders.  


Lastly, increased overall flexibility prevents overuse injuries, allows fuller range of motion, and helps athletes comfortably get in optimal positions. Flexible muscles and connective tissues recover faster too. For example, flexible hamstrings help sprinters optimize their running form. 


Any sport or activity involving running, jumping, throwing, catching, striking, kicking, or complex skills benefits from the performance boost gained through proper stretching and strengthening. By tailoring exercises to target areas critical for their activity, athletes can take their physical abilities to new heights. 


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The Benefits of Stretching and Strengthening in Physical Therapy


Stretching and strengthening exercises offer numerous benefits as part of a physical therapy program. By improving range of motion, preventing injuries, correcting posture, reducing pain, building strength, enhancing balance and flexibility, and boosting athletic performance, these techniques promote healing and optimal function. 


It is recommended to incorporate stretching and strengthening under the guidance of a physical therapist, who can create a customized treatment plan targeting specific impairments and goals. A proper warm-up should precede stretching to increase blood flow and range of motion. Strengthening exercises should focus on major muscle groups using resistance bands, free weights, or bodyweight at the appropriate intensity. Proper form and gradual progression in duration and difficulty will maximize benefits while preventing injury. Patients should communicate with their physical therapist regarding any discomfort or plateau in progress. When performed correctly, stretching and strengthening will lead to restored mobility and strength. 


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